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C3 Society and Culture in Provincial America, 1690-1754

Page history last edited by Cher McDonald 9 months ago

Chapter 3. Society and Culture in Provincial America, 1690-1754

The colonists created very different governments, societies and economic systems that will explored among the New England, Middle, and Southern Colonies. The similarities and differences among the colonies will affect their relationship with the British crown and will directly impact their willingness and/or unwillingness to fight in the Revolutionary War.

The specific focus of this unit will be on:

A. Population growth and immigration 

B. Transatlantic trade and the growth of seaports

C. The eighteenth-century back country

D. Growth of plantation economies and slave societies 

E. The Enlightenment and the Great Awakening


Class Notes:


Textbook Chapters:

Chapter 3.pdf




Homework Assignments: 

C3 Homework.pdf (printable)


Part 1 - Textbook Notes

  • Summarize each section with a 2-3 sentence statement. 
  • Sections are bolded in blue and in ALL CAPITALS. 
  • Ideas/themes to know and include in your notes: 

Middle passage

Slave codes

Pennsylvania Dutch


Triangular trade

Northern economy

Plantation economy

George Whitefield

Jonathan Edwards

John Peter Zenger


Part 2 - Short Answer Question: COMPLETE SENTENCES ONLY - Answer all parts of the question in full. 3/4ths page minimum response.

What social classes grew in colonial America during the 1700s? Identify ONE important impact of social status on colonists. Briefly explain ONE factor that, besides social class, that negatively impacted an individual’s opportunity.


Part 3 - Vocabulary: These words are from the chapter and should be defined on the bottom of the textbook notes. The following exercises should be completed after you have separately defined the words. 














piety / pious





Context Exercise: Determine whether the boldface word from the list makes sense in the context of the sentence. Circle the bolded words that are INCORRECT and write the correct vocabulary word from the list instead.


1. Among their many purposes, artisans sought to help farmers predict weather and plan for the demands of changing seasons.

2. George Whitefield, a powerful open-air preacher and for a time an associate of the Wesleys, made several evangelizing tours through the colonies and drew tremendous crowds.

3. The English system of egalitarianism—the passing of all inherited property to the firstborn son—did not take root in New England.

4. After 1700, those who did travel to America as indentured servants generally avoided the southern colonies, where working conditions were arduous and prospects for advancement were slim, and took advantage of the better opportunities in the mid-Atlantic colonies, especially Pennsylvania and New York.

5. By the beginning of the eighteenth century, some Americans were growing troubled by the apparent decline in religious entrenchment in their society.

6. Women needed primogeniture from their parents if they were to attract desirable husbands.

7. Sermons from the famous itinerant preacher George Whitefield were some of the most widely read works of the colonial times.

8. Aristocracies emerged, to be sure, but they tended to rely less on landownership than on control of substantial workforce.

9. Out of this risky trade emerged a group of adventurous entrepreneurs who by the mid-18th century were beginning to constitute a distinct merchant class.

10. King's College, founded in NYC in 1754 and later renamed Columbia, was specifically devoted to the spread of pious knowledge through the teaching of science, math, and rhetoric instead of the Bible.


Completing the Sentence Choose the word from the list that best completes each of the following sentences. Write the correct word or form of the word in the space provided.


1. The rebirth preached by the Great Awakening was welcomed as individuals resented the __________________ and weight of worry that came with predestination.

2. In England a printed attack on a public official, whether true or false, was considered ____________________.

3. Poor Virginians were frustrated with the Governor Berkeley. His ______________, long-standing monopoly of the fur trade with natives left most colonist with few business prospects. Rebels want to overthrow him to allow more _______________ room to expand their business and trade with the Indians tribes.   4. Harvard was established in 1636 as a divinity school to train future Puritan ministers, although it served a parochial service, it also provided _______________ degrees for those looking for non-religious training.

5. Southern plantations grew in size and importance as planters practiced ________________ and the eldest inherited the estate intact. 

6. In parts of New York and New Jersey, Dutch settlers had established their own Calvinist _________________, the Dutch Reformed Church.

7. New England, for all its belief in community and liberty, was far from an _______________ society. The cities illustrated this social __________________ into classes based on wealth. This differed from the South where the wealthy became _______________ who controlled wealth, land, and politics, just as the nobles in England.

8. Beyond domestic efforts, craftsmen and ______________ established themselves in colonial towns as cobblers, blacksmiths, riflemakers, cabinetmakers, and printers.

9. The _______________ preachers spread their ideas further as they preached and ______________, converting many to their views and revitalizing the ______________ of the formerly unconverted.

10. Poor Richard’s was the first _____________ almanac printed in the colonies that was widely read outside of the colony it was printed in. 

11. Harvest marks the beginning of an ___________ process which ends with drying, curing, and packing tobacco in barrels for its export to England.

12. In New England the _______________ given to daughters usually consisted the household necessities to set up housekeeping, furniture, linens, and dishes. 



Would you like to practice some of the vocabulary from this week's textbook chapter? Here is a quick link: 

Chapter 3 vocab




Colonial Williamsburg Almanack

Extensive information about eighteenth-century Williamsburg, Virginia, and the people who lived there.

( http://www.history.org/almanack/life/life.cfm )


Rare Map Collection - Colonial America

Collection of maps of the colonies (mostly southern) drawn between 1625 and 1780.

( http://www.libs.uga.edu/darchive/hargrett/maps/colamer.html )


Famous American Trials: Salem Witchcraft Trials

Primary court documents from the trials. Also has biographies of the major figures and some of Cotton Mather's writings on witchcraft.

( http://www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/salem/salem.htm )


Excerpts from Slave Narratives

Collection of narratives from the 17th through the 20th centuries.

( http://xroads.virginia.edu/~HYPER/wpa/wpahome.html )


Jonathan Edwards Comments on the Great Awakening

Primary document on one of the leading ministers of the Great Awakening.

( http://www.nhinet.org/ccs/docs/awaken.htm



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